Brexit Withdrawal Agreement Services
Finland will be represented at the European Council by the Prime Minister and the General Affairs Council by the Minister for European Affairs. In addition, an ad hoc group on Article 50, made up of experts from the Member States, has been set up to assist the Council in the withdrawal negotiations. The group met weekly in Brussels. Those covered by Part 2 of the Withdrawal Agreement have, on the whole, the same rights to work, education and access to public services and services as they did before the UK withdrew from the EU. If the EP approves the agreement by a simple majority, it will have to be adopted by the EU by the overqualified majority of the European Council of the remaining 27 Member States (20 from the other EU-27 representing 65% of the EU-27 population). The Gibraltar Protocol will apply until the end of the transitional period, with the exception of the citizens` rights provisions, which will also be maintained. The protocol provides for the preparation of the application of the citizens` rights part of the VA, which allows the application of EU law at Gibraltar airport if the United Kingdom and Spain agree on this point; underpins cooperation between Spain and the United Kingdom in tax matters, environmental protection and fisheries, as well as in policing and customs matters. The agreements between the United Kingdom and Spain facilitate cooperation between the competent authorities of Gibraltar and Spain at the operational level, including the use of joint committees on citizens` rights, the environment, the police and customs and tobacco. The British Parliament approved the draft agreement by adopting on 23 January 2020 the implementing laws (the 2020 Withdrawal Agreement Act) of the European Union (withdrawal agreement). Following the signing of the agreement, the UK Government adopted and tabled the UK`s ratification instrument on 29 January 2020.  The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after approval by the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The UK`s withdrawal from the EU came into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 .m GMT, when the withdrawal agreement came into force in accordance with Article 185.
Part 6 relates to the institutional provisions underlying the agreement and how to resolve VA disputes. The main changes to Part 6 of the March 2018 draft relate to disputes related to the agreement itself, which the Commission had originally proposed, should be resolved by the ECJ if they could not be resolved in the Joint Committee. Instead, the November draft proposes, in Article 170, that all disputes that are not settled in the Joint Committee be referred to an independent arbitration tribunal which will give a binding decision on the dispute. However, where litigation requires the interpretation of terms or provisions of EU law, Article 174 obliges the Tribunal to refer them to the ECJ in order to interpret in a binding manner those terms or provisions which the Tribunal must then apply. If the withdrawal agreement is approved, an EU law (withdrawal agreement) will be introduced to implement the withdrawal agreement in UK law. In addition to the library`s briefing paper, the manual for judicious voting, this document contains an updated report on national constitutional requirements for ratification of the withdrawal agreement. On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement and the support of the British government were presented, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  The withdrawal agreement also includes a protocol on the UK`s basic sovereign territories in Cyprus and a protocol on Gibraltar, which provides for the specific issues raised by the UK`s withdrawal from the EU with regard to Gibraltar. Holders of protected geographical indications in the EU at the end of the transitional period have the right to use the uk geographical indication without verification and enjoy a «at least equivalent level of protection» as provided for by the existing EU scheme.